Published 13 Dec 2021

Independent evaluation of 12 artificial intelligence solutions for the detection of tuberculosis



There have been few independent evaluations of computer-aided detection (CAD) software for tuberculosis (TB) screening, despite the rapidly expanding array of available CAD solutions. We developed a test library of chest X-ray (CXR) images which was blindly re-read by two TB clinicians with different levels of experience and then processed by 12 CAD software solutions. Using Xpert MTB/RIF results as the reference standard, we compared the performance characteristics of each CAD software against both an Expert and Intermediate Reader, using cut-off thresholds which were selected to match the sensitivity of each human reader. Six CAD systems performed on par with the Expert Reader (, DeepTek, Delft Imaging, JF Healthcare, OXIPIT, and Lunit) and one additional software (Infervision) performed on par with the Intermediate Reader only., Delft Imaging and Lunit were the only software to perform significantly better than the Intermediate Reader. The majority of these CAD software showed significantly lower performance among participants with a past history of TB. The radiography equipment used to capture the CXR image was also shown to affect performance for some CAD software. TB program implementers now have a wide selection of quality CAD software solutions to utilize in their CXR screening initiatives. 



1. Friends for International TB Relief (FIT) 2. Ho Chi Minh City 3. Viet Nam IRD VN 4. Ho Chi Minh City 5. Viet Nam Department of Global Public Health 6. WHO Collaboration Centre on Tuberculosis and Social Medicine 7. Karolinska Institutet 8. Solna 9. Sweden Pham Ngoc Thach Hospital 10. Ho Chi Minh City 11. Viet Nam National Lung Hospital 12. Ha Noi 13. Viet Nam Department of Clinical Sciences 14. Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (LSTM) 15. Liverpool 16. UK Birat Nepal Medical Trust 17. Kathmandu 18. Nepal

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